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Science Citation Index
The Science Citation Index (SCI) is a citation index originally produced by the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) and created by Eugene Garfield. It was officially launched in 1964 and is now owned by Clarivate Analytics (previously the Intellectual Property and Science business of Thomson Reuters). The larger version (Science Citation Index Expanded) covers more than 9,200 notable and significant journals, across 178 disciplines, from 1900 to the present. These are alternatively described as the world's leading journals of science and technology, because of a rigorous selection process.
|Producer||Clarivate Analytics (Canada and Hong Kong)|
|Disciplines||Science, medicine, and technology|
The index is made available online through different platforms, such as the Web of Science and SciSearch. (There are also CD and printed editions, covering a smaller number of journals). This database allows a researcher to identify which later articles have cited any particular earlier article, or have cited the articles of any particular author, or have been cited most frequently. Thomson Reuters also markets several subsets of this database, termed "Specialty Citation Indexes", such as the Neuroscience Citation Index and the Chemistry Citation Index.
Chemistry Citation Index
The Chemistry Citation Index was first introduced by Eugene Garfield, a chemist by training. His original "search examples were based on [his] experience as a chemist". In 1992, an electronic and print form of the index was derived from a core of 330 chemistry journals, within which all areas were covered. Additional information was provided from articles selected from 4,000 other journals. All chemistry subdisciplines were covered: organic, inorganic, analytical, physical chemistry, polymer, computational, organometallic, materials chemistry, and electrochemistry.
By 2002, the core journal coverage increased to 500 and related article coverage increased to 8,000 other journals.
One 1980 study reported the overall citation indexing benefits for chemistry, examining the use of citations as a tool for the study of the sociology of chemistry and illustrating the use of citation data to "observe" chemistry subfields over time.
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- Garfield, Eugene (2011). "The evolution of the Science Citation Index" (PDF). International Microbiology. 10 (1): 65–9. doi:10.2436/20.1501.01.10. PMID 17407063.
- Garfield, Eugene (1963). "Science Citation Index" (PDF). Science Citation Index 1961. 1: v–xvi. Retrieved 2013-05-27.
- "History of Citation Indexing". Clarivate Analytics. November 2010. Retrieved 2010-11-04.
- "Science Citation Index Expanded". Retrieved 2017-01-17.
- Ma, Jiupeng; Fu, Hui-Zhen; Ho, Yuh-Shan (December 2012). "The Top-cited Wetland Articles in Science Citation Index Expanded: characteristics and hotspots". Environmental Earth Sciences. 70 (3): 1039. Bibcode:2009EES....56.1247D. doi:10.1007/s12665-012-2193-y. S2CID 18502338.
- Ho, Yuh-Shan (2012). "The top-cited research works in the Science Citation Index Expanded" (PDF). Scientometrics. 94 (3): 1297. doi:10.1007/s11192-012-0837-z. S2CID 1301373.
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- Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge. Thomson Reuters, 2013.
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- "Specialty Citation Indexes". Archived from the original on 2010-01-04. Retrieved 2009-08-30.
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- Garfield, Eugene (1992). "New Chemistry Citation Index On CD-ROM Comes With Abstracts, Related Records, and Key-Words-Plus" (PDF). Current Contents. 3: 5–9.
- Chemistry Citation Index. Institute of Process Engineering of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. 2003.
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- Borgman, Christine L.; Furner, Jonathan (2005). "Scholarly Communication and Bibliometrics" (PDF). Annual Review of Information Science and Technology. 36 (1): 3–72. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.210.6040. doi:10.1002/aris.1440360102.
- Meho, Lokman I.; Yang, Kiduk (2007). "Impact of data sources on citation counts and rankings of LIS faculty: Web of science versus scopus and google scholar" (PDF). Journal of the American Society for Information Science and Technology. 58 (13): 2105. doi:10.1002/asi.20677.
- Garfield, E.; Sher, I. H. (1963). "New factors in the evaluation of scientific literature through citation indexing" (PDF). American Documentation. 14 (3): 195. doi:10.1002/asi.5090140304.
- Garfield, E. (1970). "Citation Indexing for Studying Science" (PDF). Nature. 227 (5259): 669–71. Bibcode:1970Natur.227..669G. doi:10.1038/227669a0. PMID 4914589. S2CID 4200369.
- Garfield, E. (1979). Citation Indexing: Its Theory and Application in Science, Technology, and Humanities. Information Sciences Series. New York: Wiley-Interscience. ISBN 9780894950247.