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Seiji Ogawa (小川 誠二 Ogawa Seiji, born January 19, 1934) is a Japanese biophysicist and neuroscientist known for discovering the technique that underlies Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). He is regarded as the father of modern functional brain imaging.[citation needed] He determined that the changes in blood oxygen levels cause its magnetic resonance imaging properties to change, allowing a map of blood, and hence, functional, activity in the brain to be created. This map reflected which neurons of the brain responded with electrochemical signals to mental processes. He was the first scientist who demonstrated that the functional brain imaging is dependent on the oxygenation status of the blood, the BOLD effect. The technique was therefore called blood oxygenation level-dependent or BOLD contrast. Functional MRI (fMRI) has been used to map the visual, auditory, and sensory regions and moving toward higher brain functions such as cognitive functions in the brain.

Seiji Ogawa
Born (1934-01-19) 19 January 1934 (age 90)
Tokyo, Japan
Alma materUniversity of Tokyo
Stanford University
Known forfMRI
AwardsMax Delbruck Prize (1996)
Japan Prize (2003)
Gairdner Foundation International Award (2003)
Keio Medical Science Prize (2017)
Scientific career
FieldsNeuroscience
Biophysics
InstitutionsAT&T Bell Laboratories
Tohoku Fukushi University
Osaka University

In 2020, Ogawa was appointed as Osaka University Distinguished Honorary Professor. He is the second scholar to receive this title after Nobel Prize winner Yoichiro Nambu.[1]

Early career

Seiji Ogawa trained as an applied physicist in the University of Tokyo and got a Ph.D. in chemistry from Stanford. He worked for 33 years in Biophysics research at AT&T Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey, and was a Distinguished Member of the technical staff. In 2001, he became Director of the Ogawa Laboratories for Brain Function Research in Tokyo. Professor Ogawa joined NRI (Neuroscience Research Institute, Gachon University of Medicine and Science, Korea) in 2008 as a Distinguished Professor and leading the fMRI research in conjunction with the new 7.0T MRI system. He has received several awards for his magnetic resonance work, is a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences and has been awarded the Japan Prize.[2]

fMRI

Ogawa discovered the principle which is now widely used to functionally and physiologically image the brain, particularly the human brain. He built on the technology of magnetic resonance imaging by using the difference in blood oxygenation level to generate a brain map corresponding to blood flow to active neurons. This helped to map the functional activity of the brain noninvasively, adding to the structural mapping provided by MRI. FMRI is now widely used in biology, neurobiology, psychology, neurology, and other branches of research and to diagnose the physiological basis of mental illnesses and organic brain dysfunction in clinical medicine.[3]

Recognition

See also

References

  1. ^ OGAWA Seiji conferred the title of Distinguished Honorary Professor — Osaka University
  2. ^ "Seiji Ogawa". Canada Gairdner awards. Archived from the original on June 12, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  3. ^ "Researchers:Ogawa, Seiji". International Center for Scientific Research. 1999. Archived from the original on April 14, 2012. Retrieved December 29, 2011.
  4. ^ "Seiji Ogawa, CiNet Advisor". Center for Information and Neural Networks. Osaka Government Tourism Bureau. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  5. ^ "1996 Max Delbrück Prize in Biological Physics Recipient". American Physical Society. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  6. ^ "2003 Japan Prize受賞者". Japan Prize (in Japanese). Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  7. ^ "Seiji Ogawa: Canada Gairdner International Award 2003". Garidner. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  8. ^ "ISMAR Prize Goes to Seiji Ogawa". Chemical & Engineering News. American Chemical Society. 19 March 2007. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  9. ^ "Olli V. Lounasmaa Memorial Prize". Aalto University. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  10. ^ "Hall of Citation Laureates". Clarivate. Retrieved 30 June 2022.
  11. ^ "第22回慶應医学賞受賞者決定" (in Japanese). Keio University. 11 September 2017. Retrieved 30 June 2022.

Additional sources