Foreign body granuloma
Perforated IUD.jpg
Transvaginal ultrasonography showing a foreign body granuloma at right as a hypoechoic (dark) area around a perforated intrauterine device. The uterus is at left.
SpecialtyDermatology Edit this on Wikidata

A foreign body reaction (FBR) is a typical tissue response to a foreign body within biological tissue.[1] It usually includes the formation of a foreign body granuloma.[2] Tissue-encapsulation of an implant is an example, as is inflammation around a splinter.[3] Foreign body granuloma formation consists of protein adsorption, macrophages, multinucleated foreign body giant cells (macrophage fusion), fibroblasts, and angiogenesis. It has also been proposed that the mechanical property of the interface between an implant and its surrounding tissues is critical for the host response.[4]

In the long term, the foreign body reaction results in encapsulation of the foreign body within a calcified shell. For example, a lithopedion is a rare phenomenon which occurs most commonly when a fetus dies during an abdominal pregnancy,[5] is too large to be reabsorbed by the body, and calcifies.


See also


  1. ^ Harlim, Ago; Kanoko, Mpu; Aisah, Siti (2018). "Classification of Foreign Body Reactions due to Industrial Silicone Injection". Dermatologic Surgery. 44 (9): 1174–1182. doi:10.1097/DSS.0000000000001531. ISSN 1076-0512.
  2. ^ Rapini, Ronald P.; Bolognia, Jean L.; Jorizzo, Joseph L. (2007). Dermatology: 2-Volume Set. St. Louis: Mosby. p. 1443. ISBN 978-1-4160-2999-1.
  3. ^ Biomaterials Science Second edition, Ratner et al. Pp. 296-304
  4. ^ Hilborn, Jöns; Bjursten, Lars M. (March 2007). "A new and evolving paradigm for biocompatibility". Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine. 1 (2): 110–119. doi:10.1002/term.4. ISSN 1932-6254. PMID 18038399.
  5. ^ Spitz, Werner U.; Spitz, Daniel J., eds. (2006). "Chapter III: Time of Death and Changes after Death. Part 1: Anatomical Considerations.". Spitz and Fisher's medicolegal investigation of death : guidelines for the application of pathology to crime investigation (4th ed.). Springfield, Ill.: Charles C. Thomas. pp. 87–127. ISBN 0398075441. OCLC 56614481.

External links