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Food safety is linked to the presence of food-borne hazards in food at the point of consumption. Since food safety hazards can occur at any stage in the food chain it is essential that adequate control be in place. Therefore, a combined effort of all parties through the food chain is required.
ISO 22000 standard
ISO 22000 is the most popular voluntary food safety international standard in the food industry with 39,651 sites certified (as per the ISO Survey 2019). The ISO 22000 family are international voluntary consensus standards which define the requirements for a Food Safety Management System (FSMS) and incorporates the following elements which as defined as FSMS principles:
Critical reviews of the above elements have been conducted by many scientists. Communication along the food chain is essential to ensure that all relevant food safety hazards are identified and adequately controlled at each step within the food chain. This implies communication between organizations both upstream and downstream in the food chain. Communication with customers and suppliers about identified hazards and control measures will assist in clarifying customer and supplier requirements.
Recognition of the organization's role and position within the food chain is essential to ensure effective interactive communication throughout the chain in order to deliver safe food products to the final consumer.
The most effective food safety systems are established, operated and updated within the framework of a structured management system and incorporated into the overall management activities of the organization. This provides maximum benefit for the organization and interested parties. ISO 22000 has been aligned with ISO 9001 in order to enhance the compatibility of the two standards.
ISO 22000 can be applied independently of other management system standards or integrated with existing Management system requirements.
ISO 22000 and HACCP
ISO 22000 integrates the principles of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) system and application steps developed by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. By means of auditable requirements, it combines the HACCP plan with prerequisite programmes. Hazard analysis is the key to an effective food safety management system, since conducting a hazard analysis assists in organizing the knowledge required to establish an effective combination of control measures. ISO 22000 requires that all hazards that may be reasonably expected to occur in the food chain, including hazards that may be associated with the type of process and facilities used, are identified and assessed. Thus it provides the means to determine and document why certain identified hazards need to be controlled by a particular organization and why others need not.
During hazard analysis, the organization determines the strategy to be used to ensure hazard control by combining the prerequisite programmes and the HACCP plan. A study for HACCP effectiveness between ISO 22000 certified and non-certified dairy companies identified that by implementing the HACCP Food Safety System (FSS) and by being ISO 22000 certified, the level of the achievement of the HACCP objectives is improved significantly.
ISO 22000 family of standards
ISO published additional standards that are related to ISO 22000. These standards are known as the ISO 22000 family of standards. At the present time, the following standards will make up the ISO 22000 family of standards:
- ISO 22000 – Food safety management systems – Requirements for any organization in the food chain.
- ISO 22001 – Guidelines on the application of ISO 9001:2000 for the food and drink industry (replaces: ISO 15161:2001 Withdrawn).
- ISO/TS 22002- Prerequisite programmes on food safety—Part 1: Food manufacturing; Part 2: Catering; Part 3: Farming; Part 4: Food packaging manufacturing; Part 5: Transport and storage; Part 6: Feed and animal food production
- ISO/TS 22003 – Food safety management systems for bodies providing audit and certification of food safety management systems.
- ISO/TS 22004 – Food safety management systems – Guidance on the application of ISO 22000:2005.
- ISO 22005 – Traceability in the feed and food chain – General principles and basic requirements for system design and implementation.
- ISO 22006 – Quality management systems – Guidance on the application of ISO 9002:2000 for crop production.
ISO 22000 is also used as a basis for the Food Safety Systems Certification (FSSC) Scheme FSSC 22000. FSSC 22000 is a Global Food Safety Initiative (GFSI) approved scheme, also referred to as a certification programme owner (CPO).
ISO 9001 vs ISO 22000
In comparison with a Quality Management System ISO 9001, the Food Safety Management System is a standard (ISO 22000:2005 version) that was a more procedural-orientated guidance than a principle based one. The 2018 revision (ISO 22000:2018) addressed this by including the ISO general management principles which are also referred to as the Quality Management Principles. Apart from that, ISO 22000 is an industrial-specific risk management system for any type of food safety which includes farming, processing, manufacturing, catering, storage and distribution. ISO 22000 is designed using the ISO high level structure (HLS), also referred to as Annex SL, to be integrated with other ISO Management System Standards (MSS), including the Quality Management System of ISO 9001, Environmental Management System ISO 14001 and Occupational Health & Safety Management System ISO 45001. The detailed similarities, differences and combined effects of the two standards (ISO 9001, ISO 22000) can be found elsewhere. , , ,., 
ISO Management System Standards (MSS) are designed to be integrated for any sector or industry and size, this is further explained in ISO and Small & Medium Enterprises. In 2004, the European Office of Crafts, Trades and Small and Medium sized Enterprises for Standardisation noted that the standard is only suitable for large sized companies and small food businesses will not be able to seek such a high standard due to the lack of resources to pursue the certification. The agency suggested creating an alternative for small food businesses to achieve the same objective. EFSA is now making their efforts on the food legislations that are adaptable for the SMEs in food supply chains. In addition, ISO and United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) jointly published ISO 22000 a practical guide which provides guidance to assist all organizations (including small and medium-sized) that recognize the potential benefits of implementing a FSMS in accordance with ISO 22000. Food organizations which seek the standard certification are evolving towards integrated management systems, typically integrating Environmental (ISO 14001) and Occupational Health & Safety (ISO 45001) along with Quality (ISO 9001). This takes into consideration that risks include food safety, worker safety and environmental and are from the primary production in the supply chains and the later stages of food processing. , 
|2005||ISO 22000 (1st Edition)|
|2018||ISO 22000 (2nd Edition)|
- Annex SL
- Codex Alimentarius
- Foodborne illness
- Food engineering
- Food packaging
- Food safety
- Food system
- International Organization for Standardization
- ISO 9000
- List of ISO standards
- Klaas Wenztel, Richard Jackson of Zimbabwe. "ISO 22000: Requirements for Food Safety Management Systems". Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Hiroshi, Ogawa. "Sterilization and sanitation technologies in the latest food manufacture processes, Total food safety management by ISO 22000 "food safety management system"". Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Mijanović Markuš, Marina (May 2006). "ISOC 22000:2005 and HACCP" (PDF). Festival kvaliteta 2006. Asocijacija za kvalitet i standardizaciju Srbije. Retrieved 17 October 2010.
- Prati, R; Deborah A. McIntyre (2004). "The new ISO 22000 (final proposal) norm on food safety management". Ingredienti Alimentari. Chiriotti Editori Spa. 3 (4): 19–21.
- Psomas, Evangelos; Kafetzopoulos, Dimitrios (July 2015). "HACCP effectiveness between ISO 22000 certified and non-certified dairy companies". Food Control. Volume 53: 134–139. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
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- Surak, John G. "Comparison of ISO 9001 and ISO 22000" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Faergemand, Jacob; Dorte Jespersen. "ISO 22000 to ensure integrity of food supply chain" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Frost, Roger. "ISO 22000 is first in family of food safety management system standards" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Goichiro, Yukawa. "The points of ISO 22000". Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Dimitrios Kafetzopoulos; Katerina Gotzamani; Evangelos Psomas. "Quality systems and competitive performance of food companies". Emerald Group. Emerald Group Publishing Limited. Retrieved 23 June 2021.
- European Office of Crafts, Trades and Small and Medium-sized Enterprises for Standardisation (2004). "Normapme Food Group Position on TC 34 draft standard ISO 22000" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- NORMAPME (2007). "Promoting craft and SMEs in the area of European standardisation" (PDF). Retrieved 28 February 2008.
- Dias Report (2003). "Life Cycle Assessment in the Agri-food sector" (PDF). Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- URS/PK Project Report (2007). "Training Courses on International Standards and Regulations for the Food Industry" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 October 2011. Retrieved 29 February 2008.
- Surak, John G. "A Recipe for Safe Food: ISO 22000 and HACCP". Quality Progress. October 2007. pp. 21–27.