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The ponderomotive energy is given by
In terms of the laser intensity , using , it reads less simply:
where is the vacuum permittivity.
The formula for the ponderomotive energy can be easily derived. A free particle of charge interacts with an electric field . The force on the charged particle is
The acceleration of the particle is
Because the electron executes harmonic motion, the particle's position is
For a particle experiencing harmonic motion, the time-averaged energy is
In laser physics, this is called the ponderomotive energy .
References and notes
- Highly Excited Atoms. By J. P. Connerade. p. 339
- CODATA Value: atomic unit of electric field