In this 2019 paper published in the International Journal of Online and Biomedical Engineering, authors Hodhod et al. present their expert system CyberMaster, designed to "to assist inexperienced instructors with cybersecurity course design." They highlight the need for improved cybersecurity training in not only universities but also the workplace and give some underlying reasons for why cybersecurity issues seem to be increasing. The authors turn to the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) National Initiative for Cybersecurity Education Framework (NICE Framework) for the development of CyberMaster. After describing its creation and implementation, they conclude that "[t]he system contributes to changing the current status of cybersecurity education by helping instructors anywhere in the world to develop cybersecurity courses."