What is the “source” of open-source hardware?

While the definitions surrounding “open-source” software have largely sufficed for such software, the term as applied to tangible hardware products has been insufficient, according to arguments by Bonvoisin et al. in this 2017 paper published in the Journal of Open Hardware. Their work turns to analysis of 132 proclaimed open-source ” non-electronic and complex open-source hardware products.” After lengthy background information and discussion of their methods and results, the authors conclude: “The empirical results strongly indicate the existence of two main usages of open-source principles in the context of tangible products: publication of product-related documentation as a means to support community-based product development and to disseminate privately developed innovations. It also underlines the high variety of interpretations and even misuses of the concept of open-source hardware.”

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